Flipped Classroom: The Definitive Guide
The Flipped Classroom is a blended learning model in which traditional ideas about classroom activities and homework are reversed, or "flipped." In this model, instructors have students interact with new material for homework first. They then use class time to discuss the new information and put those ideas into practice.
But don't be fooled. Merely flipping your homework and lecture doesn't mean you're unlocking all the benefits of flipped learning. True flipped learning is about opening up class time and transforming it into hands-on, differentiated, and even personalized learning experiences.
This article provides an overview of the flipped classroom, and what you need to know to effectively incorporate into your digital learning strategy. Use the links below to jump right to a section:
- History of the Flipped Classroom
- Flipped Classroom vs. Flipped Learning: What's the Difference?
- Flipped Classroom Data – How Does It Compares to Other Instructional Approaches?
- The Pros and Cons of a Flipped Classroom
- The Four Pillars of F-L-I-P
- How to Flip Your Classroom
- 4 Tools for Flipped Classroom
- Flipped Classroom Activities
- Flipped Classroom Research and Resources
History of the Flipped Classroom
Although the flipped classroom is a highly talked about concept, it hasn’t been around for as long as you may think. So, let’s dive into the history of the flipped classroom…
It all began in Colorado with two teachers, Jonathan Bergman and Aaron Sams, who realized that there was no way to get materials to students who were out sick. In 2007 they began recording their lessons and lectures and turned them into videos. They then began to use it in their classrooms, calling it “pre-broadcasting.”
However, Jonathan and Aaron give credit to Maureen Lage, Glenn Platt, and Michael Treglia’s for their paper entitled “Inverting the Classroom” for getting things started in 2000. At the time, there just weren’t enough resources or knowledge around the concept for it to really gain traction. Following 2007, the concept really took off. Various schools began flipping their classrooms, and the rest is history!
Flipped Classroom vs. Flipped Learning: What's the Difference?
A flipped classroom (sometimes referred to as an inverted classroom) doesn't necessarily provide true flipped learning. It's what happens in the classroom that matters. True flipped learning turns classroom time into a more individualized experience. Instead of an instructor addressing all students as a group, learners move at their own pace or in small groups to apply their knowledge in hands-on ways; this allows for a more differentiated experience overall.
Flipped Classroom Data – How it Compares to Other Instructional Approaches
Our 2018-2019 Global State of Digital Learning research study revealed some interesting insights about instructional approaches. It was taken by 9,279 education professionals from all across the country in various roles and districts.
When we look at instructional approaches most frequently used, the top ones are differentiated instruction (73.5%), blended learning (54.8%), and individualized learning (47.8%). And while flipped learning, personalized learning, and gamification command the most press, they aren’t being practiced as much as one might think. In many ways, this makes a lot of sense. These approaches require more time and resources than many of the others.
The Pros and Cons of a Flipped Classroom
At its best, a flipped classroom offers students the benefit of greater control over their learning. They steer class discussion to ask instructors for clarification, so their needs guide class time. When conducting hands-on experiments and practicing new skills in class, students can have more autonomy. They can explore new concepts in their own way, at their own pace, in a controlled and supportive environment.
When done well, this makes flipped learning highly efficient, since differentiation occurs naturally and students are more likely to remain engaged.
Another benefit is the fact that instructors don't have to flip their entire class to benefit from this pedagogy. You can instead flip a single lesson to introduce your students to the concept, see how it works out, and go from there.
The downside to flipped learning is that it relies heavily on technology, with students needing to access the internet for at-home learning. This can make the digital divide between wealthy students and their poorer peers very obvious, and students without access to technology will struggle.
The Four Pillars of F-L-I-P
To make sure you're getting the most out of a flipped learning model, keep in mind the four pillars of F-L-I-P as you plan your curriculum and lessons.
F: Flexible Learning Environment
When you eliminate traditional lecture, you also lose the static rows of seating in favor of flexible arrangements. Furniture should be modular and allow for a variety of group and individual work. Likewise, the timing of lessons needs to be flexible to allow for students to fully explore a topic and understand it at their own pace.
L: Learning Culture
Instead of traditional teacher-centric learning, the flipped classroom puts students at the center of the lesson. Students guide the pace and style of learning, and instructors play the role of the "guide on the side." Instructors will help students through an experiment or guide them through a practice set when they need assistance applying new information.
I: Intentional Content
Instructors who embraced the flipped learning model are always on the lookout for ways to maximize their classroom time so that students are actively engaged in learning and hands-on practice. This approach requires prioritizing lessons that work in such a model and figuring out ways to encourage learners to work independently.
P: Professional Educator
The flipped model requires instructors to constantly monitor their students in order to identify who needs help with what and why. Instructors need to be responsive and flexible, and they must understand that this highly active style of teaching takes great pedagogical skill. Despite being less visible, instructors need to be at the top of their game to nurture students in a flipped classroom.
How to Flip Your Classroom
Wondering how to invert your classroom? If you're ready to get started using the flipped teaching model, follow these steps:
1. Determine Your Technology
Since flipped teaching relies so heavily on technology to create and share videos of lectures, choosing the technology that can best help you film, edit, and share your videos is a crucial first step. You'll also need to choose a hosting service and determine how your students will access all of your content. Additionally, you'll need to track progress. An LMS will help you keep everything streamlined in one place as you launch your program.
2. Create Your Videos and Content
When it's time to film, keep it short and sweet. You'll be pleasantly surprised to learn that what used to take 15 minutes to cover in a lecture can usually fit into a five-minute video, since you won't have to worry about classroom management. Don't be afraid to be entertaining!
You can also seek out videos and other interactive content from quality open educational resource (OER) providers such as CK-12 and MERLOT.
3. Be Transparent With Students and Parents
Before you launch, clearly explain what flipped learning is and why you are doing it. Making a major change in your classroom culture is hard work, and flipping the mindset is not easy. Be prepared to address concerns and to revisit the "how" and the "why" often.
4. Make Your Students Accountable
Don't forget that your flipped learning model depends on student participation. If they're not keeping up with the at-home learning, your whole class will grind to a halt because students won't be prepared to engage with your hands-on activities. Be sure to devise a system that tracks and holds students accountable for watching your videos.
One way to do this is by using entry tickets, or short formative quizzes at the beginning of a lesson. These will help you determine which students did their homework, which didn't, and who needs help. If you are using an LMS, then you can get these results in real time, enabling you to differentiate instruction accordingly.
5. Keep It Up
Find a schedule and system that works for you so that filming, lesson planning and assessment all become routine. Once you have a system in place, leverage it so you can focus on your students instead of on the nuts and bolts of developing your units.
4 Tools for Flipped Classroom
There are many tools for flipped classroom that can be used to help an instructor tackle this concept. While there are many tools for flipping or inverting the classroom, we always recommend keeping all of your materials and the student experience in a centralized hub … a.k.a your Learning Management System!
Below, we list out just some of the tools that we feel could be useful if you decide to incorporate flipped learning into your teaching. Not to mention, Schoology integrates with all of these!
Khan Academy is a great tool for video lectures. It has over 3,000 videos covering K-12 subjects. Educators can also view how far a student has gotten in their lessons, giving them a better idea of what to expect when they get back in the physical classroom.
Nearpod allows teachers to engage with interactive lessons. Some examples include:
Polls, VR Field Trips, Open-Ended Questions, and Quizzes.
Playposit is an interactive video tool that focuses on a seamless workflow, learner engagement, easy authorship, and tracking of performance. As mentioned on their website, interactive video is three times as effective as standard video.
BrainPOP is an animated educational site for students. It can be used to help teach a
variety of subjects with fun, entertaining animated movies.
Flipped Classroom Activities
Removing teacher-centered lecture from class time is a major paradigm shift for most instructors, and designing lessons that put students front and center takes practice. Try these flipped classroom activities as a jumping off point for more creative lessons.
A Is for Assessment
One secret to success for the flipped model is to make sure students come to class with the background information they need. In addition to making sure your homework materials are engaging, plan to start class with a brief assessment to make sure everyone is ready. This can be a single problem to solve, a smartphone or clicker survey, or a quick quiz that you review on the spot. If appropriate, you may need to do some re-teaching before moving on.
Give your students a chance to clear up confusion early in the lesson with an active Q&A session. Have students write questions on a whiteboard, or provide the top five questions on an easel pad and have students vote via sticker for the ones they want answered. You can give the answers from the podium or break students into groups to help each other fill in the gaps.
Have volunteers come to the front to solve a problem, engage in discussion or perform a task while everyone watches. Observers should take notes on procedure and make suggestions for how to improve, then discuss. This won't work for everything, but can be a great way to solve a math problem or work through editing a sentence or two.
For complex humanities topics, a role play can let students get to the heart of an issue by representing different perspectives. Assign roles and have students face off in debate or discussion. For deeper thinking, make them switch roles midway through the exercise to experience new points of view.
Active learning is key to keeping students engaged with new material during class time. Be sure to create plenty of space for moving around the room and working in pairs and groups. For additional inspiration, check out the University of Waterloo's active learning activities and flipped classroom activities.
Flipped Classroom Video
Flipped Classroom Research and Resources
Considering flipping your classroom? There are many ways to get started. We suggest developing a flipped classroom strategy that you can build upon over time. Experimentation with different methods and ideas will be key for you to learn quickly and iterate.
If you're looking for more foundational knowledge, we suggest seeking out additional flipped classroom research and resources. In 1993, Alison King published "From Sage on the Stage to Guide on the Side." This is not directly about flipping the classroom but it is considered important early work in this field.
Look for more research on this topic from people like Eric Mazur from Harvard and Salman Khan.